The purpose of this paper is to present the concepts of co-production discussed in previous literature and to discuss its implications on research and practice. This is a theoretical paper. It identifies that the extant literature in co-production presents a number of research gaps that can be addressed in future research. These gaps exist in the areas of collective co-production, dyadic relationships and contextual factors. Moreover, the practicing managers and the policy makers can also use co-production concepts identified in this paper to implement in their programmes which offer diverse benefits to the programmes and the clients.